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Authors: Priya Agarwal and Srajesh Gupta
Abstract: This discussion paper by the National Coalition for Natural Farming, Hyderabad, explores the various nutritional benefits that naturally grown foods provide when included in the daily dietinstead of the conventionally-grown foods that we widely consume now. In the paper, the term naturally grown foods is used to cover the various kinds of foods produced or cultivated through agricultural practices, eliminating chemical inputs for ease of understanding. The paper aims to provide an overview by summarizing some of the available research and studies on nutrition and health benefits from naturally grown foods. It also seeks to highlight the need for more extensive studies that can conclusively put forth the impact.
Author: Centre for Science and Environment
Overview: Organic and Natural Farming in India is still at a nascent stage. To scale them up and turn them into a mass movement, governments at the Centre and in states must take big steps.
Mainstreaming organic and Natural Farming will address the ecological and economic crises in Indian agriculture. Only by using farming methods that are sustainable in the long run will Indian agriculture, and India, become truly self-reliant.
Authors: PP Javiya, RK Mathukia, SC Kaneria and W Rupareliya
Abstract: An experiment was conducted on medium black calcareous clayey soil at Junagadh (Gujarat) in rabi 2016–17 and 2017–18. Twelve treatments comprising Panchagavya as foliar spray @ 3% at 30,45 and 50 DAS, Jivamrit @ 50O L/ha with irrigation at sowing, 30,45 and 50 DAS, Banana sap as foliar spray @ 7% al30,45 and 60 DAs and Seaweed extract as foliar spray @ 3.5% at 30, 45 and 60 DAS were evaluated and supplemented with FYM 5 t/ha) in comparison to vermi compost 4 t/ha + FYM 6 t/ha + Bio fertilizers, FYM 24 t/ha, Control and 100% RDF (outside the organic plot) in randomized block design with three replications. The experimental results revealed that next to 100% RDF, application of FYM 24 t/ha and Panchagavya as foliar spray @ 3% at 30, 45 and 60 DAS + FYM 5 t/ha were found superior in respect of the growth parameters and yield attributes, along with higher grain yield (4148 and 3877 kg,/ha), straw yields (6383 and 5175 kg/ha) and application of vermicompost 4 t/ha + FYM 6 t/ha + Bio fertilizers enhanced grain protein.
Author: Anusha L.
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during rabi 2016–17 at the model organic farm of the Department of Organic Agriculture, CSK HPKV, Palampur, to study the effect of liquid organic manure, Jivamrit, on the productivity of wheat under the Zero Budget Natural Farming system. The experiment consisted of 10 treatments, comprising sole drenching of Jivamrit (at sowing – T1, at sowing + 30 DAS – T2, at sowing+30+45OAS-T3andatsowing+30+45+60DAs-T4), application of firstname.lastname@example.org t/ha at sowing along with Jivamrit drenching (at sowing B – T5, at sowing + 30 DAS – T6, at sowing B + 30 + 45 DAs -T7 and at sowing + 30 + 45 + 60 DAS -T8) and sole application of vermicompost @ 7.5 t/ha – T9 and vermicompost @ 10 t/ha (check) – Tl0. Significantly higher grain yield was recorded in T8. 16.16, 8.99, 3.36 and 2.16 per cent higher grain yield was recorded in T8, T7, T4 and T3 over check, respectively. However, significantly higher net returns (72,389 and 172814 /ha) and net returns per rupee invested (2.88 and 2.76) was recorded in T3 and T4, respectively. Microbial studies revealed that significantly higher colony forming units (cfu) of bacteria 123.72 t 106l, fungi (17.31 x 103) and actinomycetes (3.55 x 102) per gram of soil sample were recorded in T8, better than rest of the treatments. Whereas higher soil organic carbon (1.44%1, available NPK (279, 38 and 206 kg/ha, respectively) was recorded in check, on par with T9, T5 and T6, after the harvest of crop.
Authors: B. Boraiah, N. Devakumar, S. Shubha and K.B. Palanna
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of organic liquid formulations on growth and yield of capsicum at Agricultural Research Station, Arsikere, and Karnataka, lndia. The experiment consisted of 12 treatment combinations, with three factors—Jivamrit (2 levels), cow urine (2 levels) and panchagavya (3 levels). Among different organic liquid formulations, application of Jivamrit recorded significantly higher fruit yield (32.26,39.55,5L.63,127.2O,100.28, 86.40, 50.05 q ha-1 at 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110 and 120 DAT, respectively), N-fixers (23.86, 24.49 at 60 DAT and 16.79, L7.37 X 103 at harvest during kharif and summer, respectively) and P-solubilizer (27.90, 31.50 at 60 DAT and 26.68, 30.43 X 103 at harvest during kharif and summer respectively). Significantly higher fruit yield (30.76, 38.0, 48.52, ll7 .73,97 .L5,84.33, 48.44 q ha-1 at 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110 and 120 DAT, respectively), N-fixers (23.18, 25.03 at 60 DAT and 16.48, 18.27 X 103 at harvest during kharif and summer, respectively) and P-solubilizer (28.91, 31.18 at 60 DAT and 27 .26,30.34 X 103 at harvest during kharif and summer, respectively) were recorded with the application of cow urine. Panchagavya 6 per cent spray recorded significantly higher fruit yield (30.25, 37.49, 48.97, 7\8.91, 96.L5,86.29,47.81 q ha-1 at 60,70,a0,90, 100, 110 and 120 DAT, respectively), N-fixers life (23.58, 25.59 at 60 DAT and 17.77, L7.78 x 103 at harvest during kharif and summer, respectively) and Psolubilizer (28.43, 33.04 at 60 DAT and 27.46,34.53 x 103 at harvest during kharif and summer, respectively).
Authors: Shaikh NF, Gachande BD
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted in a cotton field, during 2010–13, to study the effect of various organic and inorganic inputs on non-rhizosphere mycoflora population and species diversity in cotton field. The mycoflora population and diversity were studied by using the serial dilution technique. It was found that the application of organic inputs like farmyard manure, Beejamrit and Jivamrit increases non-rhizosphere mycoflora population and species diversity. The application of inorganic inputs lowers the non-rhizosphere mycoflora population and species diversity. A total 27 mycoflora species were isolated and identified from the non-rhizosphere of the organic field and a total 23 mycoflora species from non-rhizosphere of the inorganic field. The isolated mycoflora species belonged to genera Aspergillus, Cephalosporium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Fusarium, Rhizopus, Cladosporium and Mucor, in both the organic and inorganic fields. Species like Alternaria brassicae, Chaetomium globosm, Trichoderma Koningii, Orechslera bicolar, Drechslera tetramera and Helminthosporium spp. are found in non-rhizosphere of organic field. Organic inputs contain essential soil nutrients and microbial load, which increases the mycoflora population, which in turn leads to better growth and production. Based on this, we can conclude that organic liquid manure can be used for increasing the microbial population and species diversity to achieve sustainable eco-friendly development.
Authors: Kartikey Kumar Gupta, Kamal Rai Aneja and Deepanshu Rana
Abstract: Cow dung is a cheaply and easily available bioresource. Many traditional uses of cow dung—such as burning it as fuel, using it as a mosquito repellent and as cleansing agent—are already known in India. Cow dung harbours a diverse group of microorganisms that is beneficial to humans due to its ability to produce a range of metabolites. Along with the production of novel chemicals, many cow dung microorganisms have shown a natural ability to increase soil fertility through phosphate solubilization. Nowadays, there is an increasing research interest in developing cow dung microorganisms for biofuel production and management of environmental pollutants. This review focuses on recent findings being made on cow dung that could be harnessed for usage in different areas, such as medicine, agriculture, and industry.
Authors: Shaikh NF, Gachande BD
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted in a jowar (rabi) field during 2010–13 to study the effect of various liquid organic and inorganic inputs on the soil physico-chemical properties. Overall results showed that in the field where organic inputs were applied, there was a significantly minimum and maximum increase in soil properties like organic carbon (0.11 % to 0.34 %), phosphorus (6.62 kg/h to 15.16 kg/h), water-holding capacity (3.3 % to 8.5 %). There was a significant decrease in pH (0.79 to 1.23) and electrical conductivity (0.07 ms/cm to 0.36 ms/cm) of soil in the organic field compared to inorganic one. The potassium content was higher in both the fields. It was thus clear that the application of organic inputs significantly improved soil-nutrient properties, which increased fertility and productivity.
Authors: Savita Jandaik, Preeti Thakur, and Vikas Kumar
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine antifungal activity of three different concentrations (5, 10, and 15%) of cow urine against three fungal pathogens (Fusarium orysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, and sclerotium rolfsii) isolated from infected plants of methi and bhindi that showed symptoms of damping off and wilting disease by poison food technique. The extent of growth of test fungi in plates poisoned with cow urine was lesser when compared with the control plates. Among these concentrations, cow urine at 15% was most effective. When the three fungal organisms were compared, maximum growth suppression was observed in Fusarium oxysporum l78.57yol at 15yo concentration of cow urine followed by Rhizoctonia solani l78.37yol and Sclerotium rolfsii (73.84%). Finally, we concluded that cow urine has antifungal activities. The nutritional effect of cow urine on plant growth was also tested with Trigonella foenum-graecum (Methi) and Abelmoschus esculentus (Bhindi) plants and the chlorophyll and protein content estimated. It was revealed from the study that cow urine caused inhibition in growth of all the three fungal pathogens. This demonstrated fungi-toxic potential of cow urine. The biochemical contents of both the plants increased when they were sprayed with cow urine. Therefore, it was proven that the use of cow urine provided a better alternative to synthetic chemicals, which are expensive and pose potential danger to farmers, marketers, consumers, and the environment. Cow urine can also be used as a bio pesticide.
Authors: Shaikh NF, Gachande BD
Abstract: An experiment was conducted in a wheat field during 2010–13 to study the effect of various liquid organic and inorganic inputs on rhizosphere mycoflora population and species diversity. The soil rhizosphere mycoflora population and diversity was studied using the serial dilution technique. Result showed that the application of organic liquid bio-boosters enhanced the rhizosphere mycoflora population and species diversity. A total of 30 mycoflora species were isolated and identified from the rhizosphere of the organic field and a total 24 species were studied from the inorganic field. The isolated mycoflora species belonged to genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Fusarium, Rhizopus and Cladosporium in both the organic and inorganic fields. The Acremonium sp., Tichoderma pseudokoniBii, Glomus sp., Cladosporium herbarum and Curvularia lunata are found in rhizosphere of organic field. Overall result showed that organic bio-boosters increased the mycoflora diversity, which increased soil fertility.
Authors: P Uma Amareswari and P Sujathamma
Abstract: An experiment was conducted with French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. L.), var. Anupam, a bush type variety, in a randomized split block design with twelve treatments and a control of four replications each to evaluate the cost-benefit ratio with organic farming at Kothavaripalli village, near CTM, Madanapalle, Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India. T0 was kept as control -without any chemical or organic in puts, T1 with chemical fertilizers NPK @ 60 : 75 : 75 kg/ha,T2 – Vermicompost @ 8 t/ha, T3 – Jivamrit @ 2100 lts /ha, T4 – Panchagavya @ 3% as foliar spray, T5 -Straw mulch @ 10 t/ha (15 cm above soil), T6 – Chemical fertilizers NPK (100%) + Panchagavya, T7 -Vermicompost + Panchagavya (T2 + T4 ), T8 -Jivamrit + Panchagavya, T9 – Straw mulch + Panchagavya, T10 -Straw mulch + Chem. Ferti. NPK (100%) + Panchagavya, T11 -Straw mulch + Vermicompost + Panchagavya and T12 -Straw mulch + Jivamrit + Panchagavya. Application of vermicompost (8 t/ha) + Panchagavya (3%) resulted the highest cost-benefit ratio of 3.25 followed by T11 (3.22) and T12 (3.06). The cost-ben e fit ratio was found to be min i mum for control (1.74). The net profit from T11 was highest (` 1,92,416/-) followed by T12 (` 1,79,716/-) and T7 (`1,79,316/-). Both T7 and T11, which showed a higher cost-benefit ratio, indicated that vermicompost utilization along with other organic practices increased cost-benefit ratio and increased the net profit to the farmer.
Authors: Rangasamy Anandham, Nagaiah Premalatha, Hyeong Jin Jee, Hang Yeon Weon, Soon Wo Kwon, Ramasamy Krishnamoorthy, Pandiyan Indira Gandhi, Yong Ki Kim, Nellaiappan Olaganathan Gopal
Abstract: Traditional organic formulations are widely used as plant growth promoters; however, the knowledge on the microbial aspect of traditional organic formulations is still limited. The aim of this study was to illustrate the cultivable bacterial diversity of various traditional organic formulations and their potential for early plant growth promotion. The results of this study showed that bacterial diversity changes depend on the type and concentration of ingredients used in traditional organic formulations. A substantial increase in plant growth by the traditional organic formulations indicates the suitability of using these organic preparations in eco-friendly agriculture.
Authors: T. K. Radha D. L. N. Rao
Abstract: Indigenous formulations based on cow dung fermentation are commonly used in organic farming. Three biodynamic preparations, viz., Panchagavya (PG), BD500 and ‘Cow pat pit’ (CPP), showed high counts of lactobacilli (109 ml-1) and yeasts (104 ml-1). Actinomycetes were present only in CPP (104 ml-1) and absent in the other two. Seven bacterial isolates from these ferments were identified by a polyphasic approach: Bacillus safensis (PG1), Bacillus cereus (PG2, PG4 PG5), Bacillus subtilis (BD2) Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus (BD3) and Bacillus licheniformis (CPP1). This is the first report of L. xylanilyticus and B. licheniformis in biodynamic preparations. Only three carbon sources—dextrose, sucrose and trehalose—out of 21 tested were utilized by all the bacteria. None could utilize arabinose, dulcitol, galactose, inositol, inulin, melibiose, raffinose, rhamnose and sorbitol. All the strains produced indole acetic acid (1.8–3.7 lg ml-1 culture filtrate) and ammonia. None could fix nitrogen; but all except B. safensis and B. licheniformis could solubilize phosphorous from insoluble tri-calcium phosphate. All the strains except L. xylaniliticus exhibited antagonism to the plant pathogen Rhizoctonia bataticola whereas none could inhibit Sclerotium rolfsi. In the greenhouse experiment in soil microcosms, bacterial inoculation significantly promoted the growth of maize; plant dry weight increased by *21 % due to inoculation with B. cereus (PG2). Results provide a basis for understanding the beneficial effects of biodynamic preparations and industrial deployment of the strains.
Authors: J Vallimayil and R Sekar
Abstract: Panchagavya is an organic product blended from five different cow products, commonly applied to crop plants in organic farming. It is used as foliar spray, in soil application and seed treatment. It can act as a growth promoter and immunity booster. Effects of the application of panchagavya in the form of seed treatment and foliar spray to Southern Sunnhemp Mosaic Virus infected sunnhemp plants were studied. Growth and biochemical parameters studied showed better growth in panchagavya-treated plants. Various concentrations from virus-infected plants were tested on cluster bean, a local lesion assay host for this virus. Panchagavya-treated plants showed lesser viral intensity than control. The effect of foliar spray of panchagavya on virus concentration in the local lesion host was also studied by inoculating the plants with the virus of different time intervals after foliar spray. A significant change in viral concentration was observed.
Authors: Tharmaraj K, Ganesh P, Suresh Kumar R, Anandan A and Kolanjinathan K
Abstract: Panchagavya, a Vedic formulation for increased productivity, disease resistance in plants and potential of utilizing Panchagavya as biofertilizer was tested on various pulses Vigna radiate, Vigna mungo, Arachis hypogea, Cyanopsis tetragonoloba. Lablab purpureus, Cicer arietinum and the cereal Oryza sativa var. ponni by growing in soil amended with dried traditional and seaweed based Panchagavya. Experimental seedling recorded higher rates of linear growth of both shoots and roots as compared to controls and that too maximum growth was observed in seedling grown in soil amended with seaweed based Panchagavya at low concentration (1:100; Panchagavya; soil). A similar observation was made on the number of leaves produced, leaf area, number of root nodules formed in the pulses by rhizobia and increased the levels of all the enzymes. From the foregoing review, it can be concluded that plant growth substances present in Panchagavya help in bringing rapid changes in phenotypes of plants and improve the growth and the productivity of crops.
Authors: MN Sreenivasa, Nagaraj Naik and SN Bhat
Abstract: Use of Beejamrit, a mix of cow dung, cow urine, water, lime and a handful of soil, has been given importance in sustainable agriculture since olden days. It is also one such organic product helpful for plant growth. Beneficial microorganisms present in Beejamrit are known to protect the crop from harmful soil-borne and seed-borne pathogens. Bacteria were isolated from Beejamrit and tested for their beneficial traits. These isolates were capable of N2 fixation, Psolubilization and IAA, GA production in addition to suppression of Sclerotium. Among the free-living N2 -fixers, isolate Az B2 registered highest amount of N2 fixation (13.71 mg/g carbon source utilized) whereas BPS3 released maximum amount of Pi (8.15 per cent) among phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from Beejamrit . The isolate BJ5 was found to produce highest amount of IAA (11.36 µg/25ml) and GA (3.13µg/25ml). Inoculation of the bacterial isolates from Beejamrit also resulted in improvement in seed germination, seedling length and seed vigor in soybean. Among the treatments, seeds inoculated with BJ5 registered significantly higher seedling length and vigor index; these were markedly lowest in control. This study clearly brought out that Beejamrit contains not only general microflora, but also certain beneficial biochemical groups such as free-living N2-fixers, P- solubilizes and bacteria producing plant growth promoting substances as well as bacteria having biological deterrent activities. Presence of such beneficial microbial biomass and nutrient status might have resulted in improved seed Bermination, seedling length and seed vigor in soybean indicating Beejamrit as an efficient plant growth stimulant.
Authors: Girima Nagda, Devendra Kumar Bhatt
Abstract: The study aimed to evaluate the effect of cow urine and combination of antioxidants against lindane-induced oxidative stress in Swiss mice. Male healthy mice, 8–10 weeks old, weighing 30 ± 5 g were randomly selected and divided into eight groups, namely, control (C); lindane (L); antioxidant (A), antioxidant+lindane (A+L), cow urine (U), cow urine+lindane (U+L), cow urine+antioxidants (U+A) and cow urine+antioxidants+lindane (U+A+L). Group C animals were administered only the vehicle (olive oil); doses selected for other treatments were: lindane: 40 mg/kg b.w.; antioxidants: 125 mg/kg b.w. (vitamin C: 50 mg/kg b.w., vitamin E: 50 mg/kg b.w., α-lipoic acid: 25 mg/kg b.w.) and cow urine: 0.25 ml/kg b.w. In group A+L and U+L antioxidants and cow urine were administered 1 h prior to lindane administration and in group U+A and U+A+L cow urine was administered 10 min before antioxidants. All treatments were administered orally continuously for 60 days. Lindane treated group showed increased lipid peroxidation, whereas glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, protein and endogenous levels of vitamin C and E were significantly decreased compared to control. Administration of cow urine and antioxidants alleviated the levels of these biochemical parameters.
Authors: Rahul Kumar, Kuldip Kumar, Vaishnavee Gupta, Amit Kumar, Triveni Shrivas, Kishu Tripathi
Abstract: Panchagavya is an incredible source for many medicinal substances. It has been reported for synergistic action but scientific data is not available. Sixty mice were randomly divided into ten groups. The first, second, third, fourth , fifth , sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth & tenth groups received PG 1, PG1+ EEAB 10%, PG1+ EEAB 50%, PG1+ EEAB 75%, PG2, PG2+ EEAB 10%, PG2+ EEAB 50%, PG2+ EEAB 75%, Standard Alprazolam, Control Urine every day administered at the dose 4ml/kg body weight regularly at 9:00 am for 21 days & investigated the role of different composition of Panchagavya and its ethanolic extract of Aloe barbedansis Mill (EEAB) (Xanthorrhoeceae) for synergistic anti-stress activity by using Tail Suspension Method in Swiss albino mice. On the 1st, 6th, 11th , 16th & 21th day after drug administration, effect of PG 1 , PG 2 , PG 1 + EEAB and PG 2 + EEAB were found to be significant at the level p